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BBC随身英语: 如果物种继续消失会对人类社会带来影响吗?

xyrxm 于2019-10-24发布 l 已有人浏览
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科学家说动植物种类的减少危急人类生活及环境的健康。本期《随身英语》谈论生物多样性的减少和生态系统的变化。
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Loss of biodiversity affects human society

生物多样性减少给人类社会带来影响

If a species of bee disappears forever or a particular plant is extinct, what does it have to do with us humans? Well, according to a team of international scientists, biodiversity is dropping below levels considered safe for the wellbeing of human societies.

如果一种蜂类永远消失了,或一种特定的植物灭绝了,这和我们人类有什么关系呢?好吧,根据一个国际科学家小组的研究,生物多样性正在下降到被认为对人类社会福祉的安全水平以下。

The issue is that everything is interconnected and ecosystems support our societies because they provide us with, for example, food, fibres and fuels.

问题是,一切都是相互联系的,生态系统支持着我们的社会,因为我们从中获取了食物、纤维和燃料。

If species go on disappearing, this can interfere with vital processes such as crop pollination and the decomposition of waste.

如果物种继续消失,这可能会影响作物授粉和废物分解等重要过程。

A framework which defines the environmental limits within which humans can operate - called planetary boundaries - says that losing more than 10% of the biodiversity in an area places the local ecosystem at risk. Ecosystems are all different but this percentage is considered a good measure of safety.

一个定义人类活动环境极限的体系——行星边界——指出,一个地区失去10%以上的生物多样性会使当地的生态系统处于危险之中。生态系统各不相同,但这个百分比是一个合理的安全线。

A study published in the magazine Science suggests that 58% of the world's land surface already falls below this level. These areas house 71% of the global population.

发表在《科学》杂志上的一项研究表明,全球58%的陆地表面的生物多样性水平已经低于10%。这些地区占全球人口的71%。

Professor Andy Purvis, from Imperial College London and the Natural History Museum, is one of the authors of the study. He says: "Once we're the wrong side of the boundary it doesn't mean everything goes wrong immediately, but there is a markedly higher risk that things will go badly wrong."

伦敦帝国理工学院和自然历史博物馆的安迪·珀维斯教授是这项研究的作者之一。他表示:“一旦我们走错了边界,并不意味着一切错误会立即出现,但出现严重错误的风险明显更高。”

The researchers found that grasslands, savannas and shrub lands were most affected by biodiversity loss on average.

研究人员发现,草原、稀树草原和灌木地平均受生物多样性损失的影响最大。

Purvis hopes this report can be a wake-up call to those who design policies. Here's his warning: "Decision-makers worry a lot about economic recessions, but an ecological recession could have even worse consequences - and the biodiversity damage we've had means we're at risk of that happening. Until and unless we can bring biodiversity back up, we're playing ecological roulette."

珀维斯希望这份报告能给那些制定政策的人敲响警钟。他警告说:“决策者非常担心经济衰退,但生态衰退可能带来更糟糕的后果——我们所遭受的生物多样性破坏意味着我们将面临更严重的后果。除非我们能够恢复生物多样性,否则我们就等于在玩生态轮盘赌。”

 

词汇表

species

(动植物的)种,物种

extinct

消失的,灭绝的

biodiversity

生物多样性

interconnected

(两个或多个事物)互相联系的

ecosystem

生态系统

interfere

影响

pollination

植物授粉

decomposition

分解

framework

框架,体系

planetary boundaries

地球界限(概念)

land surface

大地表面

Natural History Museum

自然历史博物馆

grassland

草原,草场

savanna

稀树草原

shrub land

灌木丛林

decision-maker

决策者

ecological recession

生物衰退

ecological roulette

生态轮盘赌

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