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BBC随身英语: 鸽子经训练能准确检测出乳腺癌?

xyrxm 于2019-10-22发布 l 已有人浏览
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有些动物可以用它们的知觉来识别人类的疾病,鸽子就是其中之一。《随身英语》与大家分享科学家们对鸽子视觉记忆力研究的最新发现。
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Doctor Pigeon will see you now

鸽子医生可以见您了

Next time you see a pigeon flying around, look at it with some respect - it might be able to help with the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases.

下次看到盘旋的鸽子时,带着一些尊重的眼光去看待——它可能有助于人类疾病的诊断和治疗。

A recent study has shown that these birds could be trained to detect breast cancer from images as accurately as humans.

最近的一项研究表明,这些鸟类可以像人类一样通过训练从图像中准确地检测出乳腺癌。

It's all about their visual memory - these birds have plenty of it even if their brains are very small. Professor Edward Wasserman from the University of Iowa, a co-author of the study, says: "Pigeons can distinguish identities and emotional expressions on human faces, letters of the alphabet, misshapen pharmaceutical capsules, and even paintings by Monet versus Picasso." And Wasserman adds that the birds' visual memory capacity is equally impressive, with a proven recall of more than 1,800 images.

这一切都与它们的视觉记忆有关——即使他们的头脑很小,但它们的视觉记忆容量巨大。来自爱荷华大学的爱德华·沃瑟曼教授是这项研究的合著者之一,他指出:“鸽子能够区分人脸、字母、畸形的药用胶囊,甚至是莫奈和毕加索的画作上的身份和情感表达。”他还补充说,这些鸟的视觉记忆能力同样令人印象深刻,它们能记住1800多张图片。

So how did the scientists find out about the amazing ability of these birds? They taught different pigeons to distinguish microscope images of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue and rewarded them with food every time they got it right.

那么科学家们是如何发现这些鸟类惊人的能力的呢?他们教不同的鸽子分辨癌变组织和非癌变组织的显微镜图像,并在每次它们做对的时候奖励它们食物。

It didn't take long to get good results. After two weeks of training in 'pigeon medical school', the 'students' recorded 85% accuracy as they managed to identify cancerous tissue from images they had not seen before.

没过多久这就有了不错的成果。在“鸽子医学院”接受了两周的训练后,这些“学生”从从未见过的图像中识别出癌变组织的准确率达到85%。

But pigeons are not the only animals showing potential to help human diagnosis. A team at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences has shown that a dog can be trained to smell urine samples of patients to identify thyroid cancer. It lay down where it could smell cancer and turned away if not. The animals got it right in 30 cases out of 34.

但鸽子并不是唯一有潜力帮助人类诊断的动物。阿肯色大学医学科学的一个研究小组已经证明,狗可以通过训练来嗅出病人的尿液样本来识别甲状腺癌。如果他闻出有癌症气味就会躺下,如果没有,它就转身离开。这在34个案例中有30个是成功的。

So don't dismiss the abilities of these animals. They might be much more intelligent than you think.

所以不要忽视这些动物的能力。他们可能比想象中的更聪明。

 

词汇表

diagnosis

诊断

treatment

治疗

disease

疾病

to detect

检测

breast cancer

乳腺癌

accurately

精确地

brain

大脑

to distinguish

区分,鉴别

misshapen

畸形的

pharmaceutical capsules

药用胶囊

recall

记性

microscope images

显微镜图像

cancerous

癌症的

non-cancerous tissue

非癌症的组织或细胞

accuracy

准确性

urine samples

尿液样本

thyroid

甲状腺

to dismiss

不予理会,不予考虑

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